By M. Bacon
This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of studying three-D seismic info. the themes it covers comprise uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through specialist geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the publication could be fundamental for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Extra resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
21 Typical 3-D processingsequence. that was createdby the sourceand convertsit to a more compactform. Sucha sourcesignalis undesirablesinceevery reflectionwould be followed by a smallerrepetitionof itself. Designatureremoves the secondpeak,giving the inputwaveleta morecompactfom. A decisionneedsto be A zero-phase madeat this pointwhetherthe outputshouldbe zero-or minimum-phase. It is certainlydesirableto usezero-phase 37 - 3-Ddataprocessing Fig. Also shown are zero-phase waveletsthat have had their phasesrotatedby 45' and 90'; the latter developsan antisymmetic 1blm.
Any regularlyrepeatingpattemwill showitself asa strong componentin the inline spatialFourier transformand can be removedby a notch filter. The applicationofnoise suppression is much moresuccessfulwith 3-D datathan2-D owing to theextradimension,datavolumeand spatialconsistency for thealgorithmto work with. This allowsthe filtersto adaptto relativelysuddenchangesin reflectordip while retainingsufficientdatato distinguish 52 - dataacquisition andprocessing 3-0seismic signal from random noise. Again methodsthat attempt to interpolate frequencies beyond the standardaliasing criterion are employed since no benefit would be gained otherwise.
33 Example of eventscausinga stackingconflict. Rellectionsfrom both B and C will be recordedat the point A with approximatelythe sametravel time. Since eventC is higher in the sectionit requiresa slower velocity to stack the eventthan the deeperrellection B. This createsa stackingvelocity conflict that is solved by partially migrating eventC away from eventB. Provided the migration velocity is slower than the true earth velocity the partial migration will move the dipping event to somewherebetweenits unmigratedlocation (B) and its true location (C).