By Christian E Junge
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Released via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geodynamics sequence. Geomagnetism, dynamo conception, seismology, geodesy, and mineral physics each one current major views on Earth's center. whilst interelated, scientists achieve and precious vantage from which to understans the evolution, dynamics, and kingdom of the middle.
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Additional info for Air Chemistry and Radioactivity
This C14 concentration gives the apparent age of the ocean water, Within reasonable limits all three methods arrive a t simwhich , indicates that the factors governing the carbon ilar values for t a m cycle are relatively well understood. It should be noted, however, that the application of the third method was recently re-examined by Bolin and Eriksson (1959) in a careful analysis and resulted in some modifications of the conclusions. We will now discuss these problems in more detail. We denote l / t = exchange rate; K = iv = amount K*, N* = indicates R = N*/N = relative of t = residence time in years for C12 C12 the same for Cl4 concentration of C14.
For quantitative considerations, it proved useful to subdivide the ocean into two layers, one a shallow layer above the thermocline and the other, the deep sea. The upper layer has an average depth of 50 to 100 meters (Craig, 1957), is well mixed by the action of wind and waves, and contains most of the marine life. The deep sea moves slowly with an overturn time of the order of several hundred years. The terrestrial biosphere consists of the living material of plants and the dead material of humus deposits.
These spectrographs record the total amount of ozone above the instrument, and considerable accuracy is required to derive the local concentration by differentiation. The most promising way for obtaining fine structure of the ozone distribution is to measure the local concentration directly by chemical means. Different methods have been used for aircraft and balloons by Ehmert (194l), Brewer (1960)) and more recently by Regener (1960). , 1960). I n general, the ozone profiles plotted in terms of concentration show low tropospheric values of about 50 ,ug/m8,which vary somewhat irregularly with altitude without showing systematic increase.