By Enes Kadic
Reviews and compares the foremost different types of bioreactors, defines their professionals and cons, and identifies learn wishes and figures of advantage that experience but to be addressed
- Describes universal modes of operation in bioreactors
- Covers the 3 universal bioreactor forms, together with stirred-tank bioreactors, bubble column bioreactors, and airlift bioreactors
- Details much less universal bioreactors kinds, together with fastened mattress bioreactors and novel bioreactor designs
- Discusses benefits and downsides of every bioreactor and offers a strategy for optimum bioreactor choice in keeping with present technique needs
- Reviews the issues of bioreactor choice globally whereas contemplating all bioreactor innovations instead of focusing on one particular bioreactor type
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Extra info for An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer
Thus, it can be used to probe the axial gas holdup variation in a column (Hol and Heindel, 2005). , ????-ray or X-ray tomography), the pressure difference method is much safer. , 2005) in bubble columns. , 1997; Tang and Heindel, 2005b; Tang and Heindel, 2006a, 2007). 3 Mixing or Residence Time Mixing time is defined as the time required to achieve a specified quality of mixing or homogeneity after the addition of some materials (Merchuk, 1985; Weiland and Onken, 1981). Mixing time is very important to several processes, including fermentation.
1997; Tang and Heindel, 2005b; Tang and Heindel, 2006a, 2007). 3 Mixing or Residence Time Mixing time is defined as the time required to achieve a specified quality of mixing or homogeneity after the addition of some materials (Merchuk, 1985; Weiland and Onken, 1981). Mixing time is very important to several processes, including fermentation. If, for example, an additive does not disperse adequately or takes too long to mix, a local high concentration may be observed, which could lead to cell damage in that region.
1985). Thus, it can be concluded that a careful balance must be achieved to ensure proper electrode operation; however, on a positive note, this balance is relatively easy to achieve and maintain in practice. Galvanic Probes. , 1985). 3b shows a schematic representation of a typical galvanic probe. 5 Bulk liquid Liquid film Membrane Electrolyte solution Cathode Oxygen transfer The typical oxygen transport path encountered at an electrode tip. 17) Similar to the polarographic probe, the galvanic probe is constrained by the rate-limiting step of oxygen diffusion across the probe membrane.