By Rolf H. Bremmer Jr.
This can be the 1st textual content e-book to supply a complete method of outdated Frisian. half One starts off with a succinct survey of the background of the Frisians in the course of the center a while, their society and literary tradition. subsequent stick with chapters at the phonology, morphology, note formation and syntax of outdated Frisian. This half is concluded by means of a bankruptcy at the outdated Frisian dialects and one on difficulties in regards to the periodization of Frisian and the shut dating among (Old) Frisian and (Old) English. half contains a reader with a consultant choice of twenty-one texts with explanatory notes and a whole word list. A bibliography and a choose index whole the booklet. Written through an skilled instructor and researcher within the box, An creation to previous Frisian is a vital source for college kids and researchers of Frisian, previous English and different ‘Old’ Germanic languages and cultures, and for medievalists operating during this zone. The moment unrevised 2011 reprint of the unique variation comprises numerous corrections.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary
O a. , dochter ‘daughter’, holt ‘wood’. 12. A liquid is r or l, see §77. Chapter II. esp. , mon ‘man’, komp ‘field; duel’, long ‘long’ (§29). c. , sochte ‘sought’. pl), opa ‘up’ as opposed to non-R kuma, dura, upa. esp. , wulf/wolf ‘wolf ’. , hwet > hot ‘what’, hweder > hoder ‘whether’, twelef > tolef ‘twelve’. u a. WGmc u is generally preserved, esp. , iung ‘young’. b. , thuchte ‘seemed’. , flucht ‘he flees’, beside fliucht(h). , the second vowel in helpe ‘he may help’, the second and third in Drochtenes ‘of the Lord’, etc.
Phonology c. , biāda (< *beudan-), liāf (< *leuba-), thiāf (<*þeuba-), liācht ‘light, not dark’ (< *leuhta-). When followed by an i-mutation factor (§45), the result was iū (iō): liūde/liōde (< Gmc *leudi-), diūre/diōre (< Gmc *deurja-). §38 Chronology Monophthongization of *ai and *au follows fronting of ā, because the monophthongization product ā does not undergo fronting. OFris ā < *au was also later than rounding of WGmc ā before nasal, because they do not fall together. Monophthongization precedes i-mutation.
G blecken), dῑtsa ‘to build dikes’ (< WGmc *dῑkjan), rētsa ‘to reach’ (< *raikjan), lῑtsa ‘to equalize, level’ (< *lῑkjan), *thretsa, thritsa ‘to press’ (< *þrukjan; cf. OE þryċċan), upwretsa ‘to tear up’ (<*-wrakjan). (7) I-mutation §45 Process If followed by i or j in the following syllable, back vowels were fronted and front vowels were raised. The mutation factor (i/j) subsequently disappeared or is retained as unstressed e. • *5 (the result of a-fronting, §39) > e • unfronted a > 5 (both long and short) • furthermore, o > 5, u > y (both long and short) Sometime by the end of the Proto-Frisian period, the mutation products of u, o and a were unrounded, which resulted in all the mutated vowels ending up as e (both long and short).