By Singh, Rajendra
The main primary type of human cognition and motion, and all human languages have constructed many units to precise it. those contain verbal different types, equivalent to stressful and point, but additionally adverbials, debris, and rules of discourse service provider. This booklet is meant as an academic for the learn of ways time is expressed in typical languages. Its chapters take the reader via a few foundational matters, equivalent to some of the notions of time and a number of the skill to precise it; different chapters are dedicated to extra particular questions, resembling the purchase of time, its modelling in formal semantics and in computational linguistics, or how its expression might be empirically investigated.
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Extra info for Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2008
Dekho, kitnaˆ aˆm rasıˆlaˆ / look, how-many mango juicy / lagtaˆ kitnaˆ taˆzaˆ hai / seems how-much fresh is / chilkaˆ uskaˆ pıˆlaˆ-pıˆlaˆ skin its yellow-yellow aˆm phaloN kaˆ raˆjaˆ hai mango fruits of king is Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 37 ‘look, how juicy is the mango/ its skin deep yellow (yellowish) / how fresh it looks / mango is the king of fruits’’ Whatever the meaning, approximation or saturation, it ﬂows from the neutralization of the di¤erential property in the adjective.
But other adjectives in similar contexts (-saˆ) may also have, if not systematically, the low degree meaning. bholaˆbholaˆ saˆ laRkaˆ, simple-simple-saˆ boy ‘a rather naı¨ve boy’, Tarch kıˆ marıˆmarıˆ-sıˆ roshnıˆ, torchlight of dying-dying-saˆ light ‘quasi dying /agonizing light of the torchlight’, but simTaˆ-simTaˆ-saˆ baccaˆ shrank-shrank-saˆ child, ‘(totally) curled over child’. It is then very clear that integral reduplication, whether of nouns, verbs or adjectives, is not only a ‘‘way of speaking’’ to be treated as a stylistic or expressive device, nor is it, as claimed by the theory of iconicity, a manner of saying more.
In using the simple adjective (pointing to basic heterogeneity: colour as a differential property), and not R. In a similar conﬁguration, a ‘‘blue-blue sky’’ is most often interpreted as ‘‘quite blue’’, ‘‘really blue’’, ‘‘very pure’’: (14) yah nilaˆ-nıˆlaˆ aˆkaˆsh dekhkar mujhe pahaˆR meN bachpan kıˆ yaˆd aˆˆı this blue-blue sky see-CP 1s-dat mountain in childhood of memory came ‘seeing such a blue sky I remembered my childhood in the mountains’ The pre-construction here is not cultural but situational: the speaker does not describe the sky with its colour as he discovers it when stepping outdoors, but dreams over the associations he can relate to the blue sky which Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 35 he is confronted with, as such.