Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers by I. M. Kutasov

By I. M. Kutasov

The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to give in a transparent and concise shape equipment of using the information of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even though a few points of the topic of this e-book were mentioned in different prior books and diverse papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st ebook in this subject on hand to the petroleum engineering neighborhood. the target of the publication is to offer the nation of information and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good crowning glory, shut-in and creation. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and final touch expertise, Arctic drilling), creation engineers (temperature regime of construction, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal homes of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical facts, calculation of the terrestrial warmth circulation, reconstruction of earlier climates).

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The unusual temperature profiles is due to the fact that the heat flow constantly increases with depth, while in the area of well 1 it even changes sign because of the development of a local surface talik. The analysis of the field data (Fig. 7) shows that the absorption of the heat flow due to physicochemical processes may cause change of the heat flow with depth. Subterranean waters TEMPERATURE tem perature, -6 0 29 FIELD OF RESERVOIRS -2 I I 2 I I ~ 6 I 10 I I 14 I I 200 a. 400 3 600 2 800 3 1000 -- 5 Fig.

The strong development of rheological processes in frozen soils is due to a peculiarity of their internal bonds in which ice plays a role of major importance (Tsytovich, 1975). 6. In this table W d is the ratio (in percent) of total ice-water content to dry unit weight of the soil. 5 submerged frozen soil is very i m p o r t a n t for the upper layer of frozen b o t t o m sediments. , 1973). 69) where a and b are constants. 13 shows the relation between compressive strength and t e m p e r a t u r e examined for various types of sand at salt concentrations of 0% and 3% and Fig.

The compressive strength of frozen soils is very much dependent on the amount of the unfrozen water. 14) are presented in Fig. 15. , 1982). Elastic deformations of frozen soils are governed purely reversible by changes in the crystal lattices of the mineral particles and ice, by the elastic properties of the thin films of unfrozen water, and CHAPTER 2 38 3O ~ - "~ -~20 I : SS 0%% o S= 0 % o S=0% ' S: Salinity Alluvial sand Toy. . . . d Sand(fine) ' Sand (coarse) ~ ~ _ ~ / _ S 8 ii~t o 1-'-- ,~; ~'-0 ~ : - 10 Temperature Eutectic point 1 , - 20 (~ -30 Fig.

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