Applied Superconductivity, Metallurgy, and Physics of by E. W. Collings (auth.)

By E. W. Collings (auth.)

Scope and objective even if conductors in line with the Al5 intermetallic compound Nb Sn three own fascinating high-field superconducting houses, production and dealing with problems, coupled with the tendency in their severe present densities to degrade quickly less than pressure, have typically limited their use to really user-friendly, often small-scale solenoidal-magnet applica­ tions. Likewise the Al5 compound VGa, which has a much broader serious pressure three window than NbSn yet a uniformly decrease higher serious box, has now not three entered common provider. pressure has been discovered to don't have any measurable effect on both the serious fields or the serious present densities of compound superconductors with BI and Cl5 crystal buildings, yet as but they're nonetheless within the study and improvement phases. nevertheless, conductors utilizing the binary alloy Ti-Nb or multi part alloys according to it, as a result of their relative ease of manufacture, first-class mechanical houses, and comparatively low pressure sensitivities, are actually being pressed into provider in several large-scale units. Such conductors are being wound into magnets to be used in power garage, strength conversion (i. e. , turbines and motors), and high-energy particle detectors and beam-handling magnets. of cold-rolled or drawn Ti-Nb-alloy cord for superconducting The use magnet functions was once first proposed in 1961. through the resulting ten years, whereas development was once being made within the improvement of Cu-clad filamentary-Ti-Nb-alloy conductors, Ti-Nb and different Ti-base binary transi­ tion-metal (TM) alloys have been being hired as version structures within the primary examine of type-II superconductivity.

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13 Magnetic Susceptibility as a Function of Microstructure in Titanium-Base Alloys . . . . 1 Quenched Ti-TM Alloys . . . 2 Magnetic Susceptibility of w-Phase 275 275 275 275 277 279 280 280 281 283 284 285 285 286 286 286 287 287 288 291 291 292 294 294 299 297 297 298 299 299 301 Contents xxxiii Magnetic Studies of Precipitation and Aging in TitaniumTransition-Metal Alloys . . . . . . . . 1 The Aging Process in the w + I3-Field . . . . 2 Properties of a "Saturation-Aged" w + I3-Phase Ti-TM Alloy .

1 Thermodynamics of the Debye Isotropic Continuum (a) Internal Energy Formulation of the Expansion ................ 1 The Electronic Expansion Coefficient (a) The Heat-Capacity Analogy (b) Entropy Formulation of the Electronic Expansion Coefficient . . . . . . . 2 The Free-Electron Expansion Coefficient . . . . 3 Relative Linear Expansion at Low Temperatures . . 3 Resonance Methods (a) Radio Waves . 4 Push-Rod, Optical-Lever, SQUID, and Capacitive Techniques 335 335 338 339 340 341 341 341 343 344 344 346 347 347 347 349 350 350 351 351 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 356 356 Contents xxxv (a) Push-Rod Dilatometry (b) Optical Lever Methods (c) SQUID Technology .

1 HelO in Terms of Measurable Parameters (a) The Method of Fietz and Webb for Irreversible Superconductors . . . . . . . . (b) The Method of Lubell and Kernohan . . . 2 Validity of Nonparamagentic Maki Theory as a Descriptor of Hel in Intermediate-KGL Alloys-A Case Study of TiDoped Nb . . . . . . . . . . 499 500 500 502 502 504 506 506 506 507 507 507 510 513 514 514 517 517 518 518 518 518 518 519 519 519 520 520 520 520 521 Contents xl Chapter 15. 1 Pauli Paramagnetic Limitation .

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