# Cardinal arithmetic by Saharon Shelah By Saharon Shelah

Is the continuum speculation nonetheless open? If we interpret it as discovering the legislation of cardinal mathematics (or exponentiation, seeing that addition and multiplication have been classically solved), the speculation will be solved through the independence result of Godel, Cohen, and Easton, with a few remoted confident effects (like Gavin-Hajnal). such a lot mathematicians count on that basically extra independence effects stay to be proved. In Cardinal mathematics, in spite of the fact that, Saharon Shelah bargains another view. by way of redefining the speculation, he will get new effects for the traditional cardinal mathematics, unearths new functions, extends older tools utilizing common filters, and proves the lifestyles of Jonsson algebra. Researchers in set thought and similar components of mathematical common sense may want to learn this provocative new method of an immense subject.

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01 × 101 .... 01 × 102 .... 01 × 103 .... 3: Absolute distances between successive numbers in the floating point system F(10, 3, −2, 3) Interval Neighboring numbers distance ........ [1/β 3 , 1/β 2 ) β −p−2 [1/β 2 , 1/β) β −p−1 [1/β, β) β −p −p+1 [1, β) β = M [β, β 2 ) β −p+2 [β 2 , β 3 ) β −p+3 ........ 3. These results can be generalized and extended to any floating point system F = F (β, p, emin , emax ). Absolute distances decrease towards zero, on intervals that are subset of (0, β) and in contrast these distances increase on intervals in [β, xmax ] towards xmax , with max x∈(−β,+β)∩F |x − succ(x)| ≤ M, We note also that the -machine M = β 1−p being the smallest upper bound of relative distances in F coincides with the smallest absolute distance between successive points only on the interval [1, β).

2 A MATLAB Simulation of a Floating Point System The following function generates the non-negative numbers of a floating point system F(b, p, emin, emax). 4 the distribution of non-negative numbers of F(2, 4, −6, 7) and F(2, 3, −3, 4). 3 Tips for Floating Point Computation To conclude, we may set an ensemble of rules that could avoid situations where accuracy can be jeopardized by the propagation of rounding errors through all type of floating point operations and more particularly through absorption and cancellation.

In case the converted fractional part is finite, then no repeating pattern occurs and the value of I should be zero. 1: input D = 1 and m = 10. 25: input D = 25 and m = 100. 01)2 . Remark: To minimize rounding errors in case I is a “large” number, it is more efficient to express fractional numbers as a ratio of 2 integers (for example f = D/m ... ). 4. Test each one of the 3 functions above for 3 different cases and save the results in a Word document.