China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment by Vaclav Smil

By Vaclav Smil

Content material: China's Biophysical Foundations -- My chinese language reviews -- demanding situations Of knowing -- Interdisciplinary views -- power -- part a Century Of Advances -- carrying on with significance Of conventional Energies -- A Failed method -- From a brand new Saudi Arabia To matters approximately Oil safety -- A awesome Shift In power Intensities -- nutrition -- The World's maximum Famine -- From Subsistence To Satiety -- nutritional Transitions -- Nitrogen In China's Agriculture -- Can China Feed Itself? -- setting -- Attitudes And Constraints -- the 1st Of The 5 parts -- China's surroundings And protection -- price Of China's Environmental switch -- Megaprojects And China's surroundings -- taking a look forward by way of in retrospect -- Failed Forecasts -- Contending developments

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Liquid fuels since 1993. 6Mt in 1996), China now has a growing trade deficit in its crude oil trade. In addition, its imports of refined products are now approaching the total volume of imported crude. 8Mt bought in 1996. 14t/year, or less than 7 per cent of the Japanese mean. 32 Clearly, times have changed: there is no more boasting about China’s imperviousness to the vagaries of the global oil market and to destabilizing threats of oil shocks. 33 Energy 21 The only way to avert the need for steadily increasing imports would be to discover large hydrocarbon deposits in Xinjiang, China’s only remaining great hydrocarbon frontier.

37 Given the country’s huge water power potential it is not surprising that a massive construction program of large hydrostations is another key ingredient of China’s long-term plans. The initial goal was to quadruple the installed capacity between 1980 and the year 2000 by putting online some 60GW of new hydro capacity. Actual ratings will fall somewhat short of that goal. 2 million people. 39 Both the USA and Canada, two of the Western world’s most experienced builders of large dams, refused to participate in this costly project, as did the World Bank.

By the late 1920s wood and crop residues contained no more than a third of all fuel energy used worldwide, and their share sank below 25 per cent by 1950 (Smil 2003). Unlike with the well-monitored production of fossil fuels and electricity, largely noncommercial uses of biomass fuels cannot be quantified accurately. 4Gm3 of harvested wood was burned as fuel during the late 1990s, implying the thermal equivalent of about 27EJ. Because in many countries a major part, and even more than 50 per cent, of all woody matter for household consumption is gathered outside forests and groves from bushes, tree plantations (rubber, coconut), and from roadside and backyard trees, addition of this non-forest woody biomass raises the total to 30–35EJ.

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