By David K. Lynch, Kenneth Sassen, David O'C. Starr, Graeme Stephens
Cirrus clouds are excessive, skinny, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. within the final ten years, significant paintings has proven that cirrus is widespread--more universal than formerly believed--and has an important effect on weather and international switch. because the subsequent new release climate satellites are being designed, the effect of cirrus on distant sensing and the worldwide strength finances has to be well-known and accommodated. This publication, the 1st to be committed solely to cirrus clouds, captures the kingdom of data of cirrus and serves as a realistic instruction manual in addition. every one bankruptcy is predicated on an invited overview speak awarded at Cirrus, a gathering hosted through the Optical Society of the United States and co-sponsored by means of the yankee Geophysical Union and the yank Meteorological Society. All elements of cirrus clouds are coated, an strategy that reaches into different fields. subject matters comprise: the definition of cirrus, cirrus climatologies, nucleation, evolution and dissipation, mixed-phase thermodynamics, crystallinity, orientation mechanisms, dynamics, scattering, radiative move, in situ sampling, techniques that produce or impression cirrus (and vice versa), contrails, and the impression of cirrus on weather.
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5-km height intervals. 3. Cirrus and Weather over the Eastern Great Basin It is obvious that considerable seasonality exists in the PARS high cloud data set. The seasonal dependence on cirrus frequency and characteristics is clearly a reflection of the basic synoptic patterns that control the weather of the Great Basin. There is a strong correlation between the relative frequency of occurrence of PARS cirrus cloud observations (in percent of monthly to total observations), Salt Lake City National Weather Service reports of high cloud amounts (in terms of cirrus coverage-weighted amounts), and monthly Salt Lake City precipitation as shown in fig.
7. Summary and Conclusions From the information compiled here, an attempt can be made to create, or more accurately, reiterate in consideration of modern information, a versatile definition of a cirrus cloud. Cirrus comprise the highest tropospheric cloud category. Pictorial cloud atlas books illustrate the differences between cloud genera and species. The criteria for the identification of cirrus have traditionally relied on visual appearance, including morphology and color, which make them distinct from the clouds of the middle and lower troposphere.
4 For sky coverage, overcast applies to >90%, broken to 50-90%, and scattered to 10-50% cirrus cloud coverage. 5. 8) studied at PARS. 6. Comparison of monthly-averaged PARS cirrus cloud base and top heights (circles), compared with Salt Lake City tropopause heights averaged for all days and those in the cirrus sample (open and solid squares). 05) is used. In this sample the opaque and thin-tovery-thin cloud categories are about equally divided. 3 (Minnis 1998), then one-half of regional cirrus clouds would go undetected.