By S. Wojciech Sokolowski
Concentrating on service-providing corporations confirmed by way of healthiness and human provider execs in post-Communist Poland, this ebook provides a brand new measurement to the sociological examine of voluntary companies. the writer investigates the factors and pursuits of the folks who identify those firms and the connections between organizational varieties, the social agencies of construction, and the occupational pursuits carrier prone.
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Extra info for Civil Society and the Professions in Eastern Europe - Social Change and Organizational Innovation in Poland (Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies, An International Multidisciplinary Series)
Those goals and aspirations must be taken into account by policy makers pursuing social reforms or systemic changes, because they can contribute to the reform process. NOTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quoted in The Nation, February 2/9, 1998, p. 54. Such methodology is routinely applied in statistical hypothesis testing, such as the Chi square test. The null hypothesis is an “ideal-type” or the frequency counts expected on the assumption of no-relationship between two variables under investigation. These expected frequency counts represent the joint probability of having a certain value on one variable and a certain value on the other variable.
The term “self-help” can be accurately applied only to a handful of entities of this kind, namely mutual-help associations. Since this study focuses on organizations established by professionals to serve nonmembers, the term “self-help” is clearly inappropriate. The first two terms, on the other hand, indicate only what the entities in question are not, while telling us little what they actually are. This was aptly observed by one of my Polish informants. When she heard me using the term “nonprofit,” she replied with the following pun.
Despite such perceptions, no formal mandate of compulsory membership existed in Poland, and after 1956, nobody was fired or refused admission to a university solely for refusing to join a particular organization. 9 million. That constituted only a third (37%) of the economically active population, and a fifth (22%) of the total population. Because of multiple memberships, the actual number of people belonging to these organizations was even lower. It is therefore clear that despite informal pressures, incentives, and opportunism, the associations operating in Eastern Europe were voluntary for the most part.