By Arie S. Issar
Finished assessment of results of weather variability on hydrological and human structures within the Holocene.
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Extra resources for Climate Changes During the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems
From the proxy-data time series, one can conclude that the MB was a relatively warm period. Yet, according to the same data it was not as warm as EB IV but resembled a continuation of a warm phase. Deposition of sands and sandy silts in the bed of Nahal Lachish during MB I and MB II may also be interpreted as “rapidly ﬂuctuating rainfall patterns interspersed with drought leading to soil stripping from the hill slopes” (Rosen, 1986, pp. 56–57). Neumann and Sigrit (1978) undertook a survey of references to barley harvest dates in the clay tablets of ancient Babylon.
The level of the Mediterranean Sea declined, while the level of the Dead Sea rose, and oxygen isotope composition in lake deposits and speleothemes became lighter (although the change observed in the sediments of the Sea of Galilee appears to come later and is believed to reﬂect rather the small number of dated samples and thus the imprecision of the timing of the changes). Rosen (1986), investigating the alluvial deposits of Nahal Lachish, concluded that the deposits of the Chalcolithic period and the EB indicated a climate that was moister than today.
Later, and to the present day, these trees completely disappeared and were replaced by Acacia sp. and by tamarisk, indicating an arid to semi-arid habitat (Liphschitz and Waisel, 1974). As already mentioned, this climatic crisis affected the whole Middle East. Neuman and Parpola (1987) found documentary proof of aridization in a reduction of the water level of the Tigris– Euphrates and an increase in salinization (from c. 9 ka BP). 5 ka BP. 3 ka BP, the rise in temperature caused severe droughts and crop failures.