By Lynne R. Parenti
To resolve the advanced shared heritage of the Earth and its existence varieties, biogeographers study styles of biodiversity, species distribution, and geological heritage. to this point, the sector of biogeography has been fragmented into divergent systematic and evolutionary ways, without overarching or unifying learn subject matter or technique. during this textual content, Lynne Parenti and Malte Ebach tackle this discord and description comparative instruments to unify biogeography. Rooted in phylogenetic systematics, this comparative biogeographic method deals a accomplished empirical framework for locating and interpreting the styles and approaches of the distribution of lifestyles on the earth. The authors conceal biogeography from its basic rules to the best how one can enforce them. Real-life examples illustrate strategies and difficulties, together with the 1st comparative biogeographical research of the Indo-West Pacific, an creation to biogeographical thoughts rooted within the earth sciences, and the mixing of phylogeny, evolution and earth historical past.
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Extra resources for Comparative Biogeography: Discovering and Classifying Biogeographical Patterns of a Dynamic Earth (Species and Systematics)
Ornithologist Philip Lutley Sclater (1858) divided the terrestrial world into a minimal six faunal regions. His goal was a classiﬁcation that would reveal “. . the most natural primary ontological divisions of the earth’s surface” (Sclater, 1858:130). 4). 3 / 25 candolle’s (1820) 20 global botanical regions 1. Boreal Asia, Europe, and America 11. Tropical West Africa 2. Europe south of the Boreal region and north of the Mediterranean 12. Canary Islands 3. Siberia 13. Northern United States 4. Mediterranean Sea 14.
Indian Ocean XXIX Mid/Central Paciﬁc Ocean XXIII. Caribbean VI. Southern Circumcentral VII. South African IX. Australian XVII. Peruvian XXII. Urugavian XXX. Southern Atlantic Ocean XXXI. Southern Paciﬁc Ocean VII. Southern Neutral XVIII. Araucanian XXX. Southern Atlantic Ocean XXI. East Patagonian XXXI. Southern Paciﬁc Ocean VIII. Southern Circumpolar XIX. Fuegian [= Tierra del Fuego] XXX. Southern Atlantic Ocean XXXI. Southern Paciﬁc Ocean IX. Southern Polar XX. Antarctic XXIII. Antarctic Sea 34 / H I S T O RY A N D H O M OLOGY more in agreement with Forbes’s classiﬁcation of South America than with Sclater’s.
The western and eastern coasts of the northern Atlantic Ocean share similar biota in similar areas. Catadromous eels of the genus Anguilla live in streams on each coast and migrate to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. The geological composition of areas is the same insofar as they share a geological history. We ﬁnd similar rock types, soil types, and fossils in North America and Europe. Today these areas are separated by the Atlantic Ocean. Using Croizat’s (1952) spatial homology, we may draw a line, or baseline, to unite these two areas and propose that they were previously connected, either by land bridges or as formerly joined continents; they share a spatiotemporal relationship.