Computer Programming and Computer Systems by Anthony Hassitt and Anthony Ralston (Auth.)

By Anthony Hassitt and Anthony Ralston (Auth.)

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1 is not represented exactly in the machine. The effects of such approximations can be studied by standard techniques of numerical analysis. 2-4 THE REPRESENTATION of INSTRUCTIONS The machine has 32,768 locations in the memory. These locations are numbered 0 through 32,767. The numbers that form the data to a problem are read into memory locations. ) The CPU refers to any particular piece of data by specifying the number of the location in which it is stored. " The "contents of location « " specifies the 36-bit signed binary integer that is in the memory location number n.

The first instruction takes the number in location 2000, and if this number is positive, then the control jumps to the instruction in location 104. If this number is negative, then control goes to the instruction at location 102. The two instructions in 102 and 103 subtract twice the number in location 2000 from the accumulator, with the result that minus the contents of location 2000 is left in the accumulator. The final result of the sequence of instructions is that the absolute value of the number in location 2000 is placed in location 2001.

Algol has no restriction but it makes efficient compilation difficult. In Fortran statements all spaces are ignored (except within Hollerith strings). The statement D01001 = 1,LA ST has the same meaning as DO 100 1 = 1,LAST The omission of the space between the DO and the 100 and between 100 36 1 COMPUTER SYSTEMS and the I and the inclusion of spaces between the LA and the ST is of no advantage to the programmer, although it is legitimate. The compiler must waste time allowing for the possibility of these statements.

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