Critical Scientific Realism (Clarendon Library of Logic and by Ilkka Niiniluoto

By Ilkka Niiniluoto

This ebook involves the rescue of medical realism, exhibiting that reviews of its loss of life were drastically exaggerated. Philosophical realism holds that the purpose of a selected discourse is to make actual statements approximately its subject material. Ilkka Niiniluoto surveys other forms of realism in numerous parts of philosophy after which units out his personal severe realist philosophy of technological know-how.

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2) Some philosophers restrict the concept of existence to physical existence; if they admit something spatio-temporally non-existent in their ontology, they use other words (like Russell's 'subsistence') for these other aspects of reality. 4 4 For the concept of existence, see Aune (1986). 26 ONTOLOGY As I wish to leave open the possibility of non-reductionist materialism, I shall use the term 'exist' in a broader sense which in principle allows also for the existence of non-physical entities.

G. e. to properties and substances, and these classes can be formed by our conceptual activity in various ways. The world does not divide itself uniquely into natural kinds (cf. Quine 1969), but nevertheless the 'redness' and 'cathood' of some physical objects is based upon their objectively existing features. Our way of speaking about tropes is derivative from the talk about their classes: a name for a trope is obtained by adding indexical expressions to a property term. This means also that tropic realism does not entail essentialism, which claims that particular objects possess some of their properties 'essentially' or 'necessarily', some only 'accidentally'.

But if NOA, in this interpretation, leaves it completely open which statements are to be taken 'at face value', then NOA knows nothing at all—and thus is reduced to global scepticism. This is clearly in contradiction with Fine's own statements about the core position. Hence, Musgrave concludes that NOA is 'a thoroughly realist view'. In my own evaluation, realism is undoubtedly alive. e. for showing in what sense even idealizational theories may be truthlike, how the truthlikeness of scientific statements can be estimated on evidence, and how the approximate truth of a theory explains its empirical success.

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