Critical Theory and World Politics: Citizenship, State and by Andrew Linklater

By Andrew Linklater

Andrew Linklater has been probably the most cutting edge thinkers in diplomacy, introducing serious and moral parts into the self-discipline which has pressured it to reconsider a lot of its simple assumptions. This publication builds in this physique of labor to improve an intensive new conception that demands a sophisticated method of diplomacy.

Key matters coated within the publication include:

  • citizenship and humanity
  • critical thought and political community
  • the challenge of damage
  • the sociology of states-systems.

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Extra info for Critical Theory and World Politics: Citizenship, State and Humanity

Example text

Does the state exhaust our political obligations or are there wider and more fundamental obligations that survive, so to speak, the fragmentation of the human race into sovereign states? If there are surviving obligations, are they the obligations that states owe one another as members of a society of states? Do individuals have duties to the whole of humanity and can they reasonably claim certain rights against the human species and its political representatives? To what extent are there universal obligations not just to uphold the rights of human beings as far as possible within the ‘Westphalian’ system but to construct new global institutions and practices capable of promoting higher levels of human solidarity?

One objection is that all universalistic codes inevitably reflect the preferences of specific cultures or civilizations, which assume that their moral practices are valid for the entire human race. This criticism is invariably linked with the contention that there is no immutable and universal The problem of community in international relations 35 human reason, no transcendent observation point or Archimedean perspective, that grounds universal moral truths and justifies the inclusion of all persons in one ethical community.

In their different ways, these questions are concerned with the character of moral inclusion and exclusion in social and political life. The recurrent philosophical questions have been concerned with whether or not there is any rationale for the state’s inclusion of citizens and exclusion of non-citizens from the moral community. The main sociological questions have focused on whether or not the dominant principles of inclusion and exclusion in the international states-system are changing. Questions of practice have raised the issue of whether foreign policy should work within the customary principles of inclusion and exclusion, which privilege the interests of co-nationals, or should advance ‘higher’ cosmopolitan commitments.

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