By Michael Loewe
Highbrow advancements of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE nine CE) were studied hitherto at the assumptions procedure defined as Confucianism got paramount significance and that Dong Zhongshu (ca. 198 to ca. 107 BCE) have been answerable for formulating its ideas. In hard those assumptions, this publication examines Dong occupation and popularity, and his meant authorship of the Chunqiu fanlu, for lengthy topic to query. it truly is concluded that whereas a few components of that textual content could characterize the lessons that Dong Zhongshu promoted, a few may well date from as past due as seventy nine CE; nonetheless others undergo an affinity to writings which, banned as being suspect or almost certainly subversive, live on in not more than fragmentary shape.
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Extra info for Dong Zhongshu, a 'Confucian' Heritage and the Chunqiu Fanlu
By 31 BCE the cult of the wu di 五帝 that Wudi had worshipped gave way to that of heaven, the god of Zhou. Concurrently and significantly, beliefs in an afterlife were shifting from the paradise of the east where the First Qin Emperor had sought the elixir of immortality to that of the west over which its Queen Mother presided. As early as the reign of Gaozu, Lu Jia 陸賈 (ca. 228–ca. 140 BCE) set out to describe the most commendable way of government. Much later his work was to draw marked praise from scholars of the Qing dynasty.
125; d. 138), Huang Qiong 黃瓊 (Supreme Commander, 154) or Chen Fan 陳蕃 (Supreme Commander, 165), had not necessarily been grounded in the wu jing or Lunyu;43 some, who may be credited with some but no special degree of learning, reached high office, such as Diwu Lun 第五倫 (Imperial Counsellor, 75), Yuan An 袁安 (Chancellor, 87), Chen Chong 陳寵 (Superintendent of Trials, 94) and Chen Zhong 陳忠 (Director of the Secretariat, 123, 124); others such as Zong Jun 宗均 (d. 76), Cao Bao 曹褒 (d. 102) and He Chang 何敞 (d.
Military ventures were taking their toll, demanding service spent in campaigning in strange climes, inflicting casualties and disrupting the seasonal work of the fields. Observers might well ask in what ways Han imperial government was in fact seeking to improve the welfare of the subjects of Jingdi or Wudi. And whatever supplications the rulers of mankind made to superior powers of the universe or to their ancestors, whatever the rites they practised, these brought no relief from the sufferings brought about by the rough side of nature that could destroy a livelihood at a blow.