Geological Structures and Moving Plates by R.G. Park

By R.G. Park

This publication makes a speciality of the translation of geological constructions when it comes to plate tectonics. the writer bargains first of all with the real homes of the lithosphere and the theoretical heritage had to comprehend plate hobbies and plate interactions. He then is going directly to describe the mechanical homes of plates, and the resources and distribution of tension within the lithosphere. The explanations of plate movement are tested, besides the kinematic and geometric features of relative plate events and interactions, while buildings and plate hobbies in numerous tectonic regimes (divergent, convergent, intraplate and strike-slip) are mentioned in a few aspect. Case reports are incorporated, with particular examples from Phanerozoic and Precambrian orogenies. This e-book may be of curiosity to complicated undergraduate and postgraduate geologists, and will function a reference resource for geophyscists.

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Example text

T hese s how pre dominant ly no rma l fa ult mo vem ent wit h a subho rizo ntal e xte nsio na l stress parallel to th e direct io n of rela tive pla te mo tion . as dem on- stra red by Sykes (1967) fro m mo re tha n 50 focal -pl ane so lut ions for the world rift system. 22). T he ex te nsio nal stresses a re a pproxima te ly par a lle l to the re lative pla te mov ement vecto rs: NE - SW in t he Re d Sea and NW - SE in the A fr ica n rifts. T he lo we r pa rt of the Re d Sea shows predomina ntly st rike-s lip sol ut io ns.

Because the stress system IS non -renewa ble , it is nOI compa rable with Ihe plare bou nda ry fo rces in its lon g-ter m effects. h ran~ stresses are caused by changes in the radius of curvature of a plate as it migra tes from the pole to the eq uator o r vice versa (Turcotte , 1974a ). However , in a very similar way to bending stresses , mem bra ne stresses will neve r reach their theo retical maximum (calculated at aro und IOOMPa oy Turcou e ) beca use of continuo us visco us rela xation in Ihe long time pe riod take n for the plate 10 move 10 its new positio n.

The various types of dri ving and resist ive forces that may act on a plat e have bee n SUIll marized by Fo rsyt h and U yed a (11)75) and Botr and Kusznir (1984). 3). (i) T he slah-pull '[orce ( Figure 2. 14A ) acts o n a su bducting plate an d results fro m the negative buo yan cy o f the coo ler, den ser lithosphere of the sinking sla b. T his force is po tentially Ih e largest o f the plat e bou ndar y forces, hut is partl y cou nteracted by resistan ces prod uced by s ink ing, dow nbending and co llisio n.

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